TURKEY AND THE ARMENIAN ATROCITIES
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The object of this book is not merely to set forth the situation in Turkey as it is to-day, but to trace the influences that have produced it. Those influences are very complex. They include the social characteristics of the peoples of Turkey, the religious beliefs and ecclesiastical customs that have grown up in the empire during the past centuries, the political ambitions and jealousies of the European Powers, and the personal qualities of the different men who have been prominent in the control of affairs. Probably no chapter in history is more kaleidoscopic in its character. To set forth its various phases, the topical rather than the strictly historical form has been adopted. The effort has been made to let each phase stand out as clearly as possible, first in itself, and then in its relation to the other phases. The contemporary historian is never logical. That remains for those who, with longer range, have a better perspective.
The various histories of Turkey have been consulted, but special acknowledgment
must be made to “ Turkey Old and New,” by Sutherland Menzies,
which more than any other traces the development of the Eastern Question from
the standpoint of the European Powers. “The Life of Lord
Stratford de Redcliffe,” by Stanley Lane Poole, “ Turkish Life in War Time,” by Henry O. Dwight, and Dr. Cyrus Hamlin’s books, “My Life and Times” and “Among the Turks,” have been consulted with great advantage. It is a privilege not less than a duty to acknowledge the very efficient aid rendered by Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, Dr. Benjamin Labaree and Professor E. A. Grosvenor. Dr. Hamlin’s vivid remembrance of the picturesque phases of Turkish diplomacy during the reigns of Mahmud II and Abd-ul-Medjid; Dr. Labaree’s scholarly as well as practical knowledge of branches of the Eastern Church which to most are little more than historic names; Professor Grosvenor’s intimate acquaintance with, and sympathetic appreciation of, the Greek life and character, have laid me under peculiar obligations to each. I must also express my thanks to those who from the very center of the conflict have given those sketches which describe so vividly the terror of the situation. Some of the letters appear for the first time on these pages; others have been already given to the world in the columns of The Independent and the daily press. Their authors I know well and esteem most highly for their great ability and high character, which has been most nobly manifest during the trying scenes of the past year. As I write these lines word has come of the death of one and of the critical condition of another. They have been urged to leave their posts, but one and all they have refused, with the exception of a very few who, in their own physical weakness, have felt that they could not strengthen their associates. Turkey and Russia are banded together to force them to leave; the former that they may not bear witness against the evil done; the latter that they may not hinder the progress
of that policy of repression already applied to Evangelical thought throughout her empire.
What is in the future no man can tell, but the growth of pure religion in whatever form of church organization; the development of freedom of thought; the attainment of civil liberty, and that not merely for Armenian, but for Greek, Nestorian, Jacobite, and even for the Turk himself, depends upon the continuance of the influences for a higher life that have been at work during the past sixty years, and that depends upon the missionaries being supported at their posts. Theirs is no sectarian work. They stand as the friends of Gregorian Armenians, Roman Catholic Chaldeans, Nestorians and Jacobites as well as of those in closer affiliation with the Protestant Churches of Europe and America. America should stand by them and demand their full protection. It is our right by treaty; it is our right by the duty we owe humanity, by the duty we owe to our tradition as a liberty loving nation. We have no political ends to serve; we want not a square foot of the Sultan’s domains; but we stand, as we have always stood, for freedom for the oppressed, for the right of every man to worship his God in the light of his own conscience.
EDWIN MUNSELL BLISS.
New York City,
March 21st, 1896.
Table of Contents
| The Cover, Frontispiece, Title Page, Copyright
Introduction | Preface | Turkey in Asia (map) | Table of Contents (as in the book)
List of Illustrations | 1. The Turkish Empire | 2. Population and Languages | 3. Religions
4. The Turks | 5. The Kurds | 6. The Armenians | 7. The Greeks | 8. Other Oriental Churches
9. Rise and Decline of Ottoman Power | 10. Turkey and Europe | 11. Russia and Turkey
12. Mahmud II | 13. Reform and Progress | 14. Treaties of Paris and Berlin
15. Condition of the Christians | 16. The Turkish Government | 17. Protestant Missions in Turkey
18. The Armenian Question | 19. General Situation in 1894 | 20. The Sassun Massacre
21. Politics and Massacre at Constantinople | 22. Massacres at Trebizond and Erzrum
23. Massacres in Harput District | 24. Aintab, Marash and Urfa | 25. Character of the Massacres
26. Religious Persecution | 27. Relief Work | 28. Partition of Turkey | 29. America and Turkey
30. General Survey | Alphabetical Index
Bliss, Rev. Edwin Munsell . Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities.
Edgewood Publishing Company , 1896
J. Rendel Harris
& B. Helen Harris, Letters
from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia