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Harry Stuermer

TWO WAR YEARS IN CONSTANTINOPLE

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
 
PAGE
At the outbreak of war in Germany—The German "world-politicians" (Weltpolitiker)—German and English mentality—The "place in the sun"—England's declaration of war—German methods in Belgium and Alsace-Lorraine —Prussian arrogance—Militaristic journalism
17
CHAPTER II
 
To Constantinople—Pro-Turkish considerations—The dilemma of a Gallipoli correspondent—Under German military control
35
CHAPTER III
 
The great Armenian persecutions—The system of Talaat and Enver—A denunciation of Germany as a cowardly and conscienceless accomplice
42
CHAPTER IV
 
The tide of war—Enver's offensive for the "liberation of the Caucasus"—The Dardanelles Campaign; the fate of Constantinople twice hangs in the balance—Nervous tension in international Pera—Bulgaria's attitude—Turkish rancour against her former enemy—German illusions of a separate peace with Russia—King Ferdinand's time-serving—Lack of munitions in the Dardanelles—A mys-  

[page xii] CONTENTS

PAGE
terious death: a political murder?—The evacuation of Gallipoli—The Turkish version of victory—Constantinople unreleased—Kut-el-Amara—Propaganda foe the "Holy War"—A prisoner of repute—Loyalty of Anglo-Indian officers—Turkish communiques and their worth—The fall of Erzerum—Official lies—The treatment of prisoners— Political speculation with prisoners of war—Treatment of enemy subjects—Stagnation and lassitude in the summer of 1916—The Greeks in Turkey—Dread of Greek massacres—Rumania's entry—Terrible disappointment— The three phases of the war for Turkey
75
CHAPTER V
The economic situation—Exaggerated Entente hopes—Hunger and suffering among the civil population—The system of requisitioning and the semi-official monopolists—Profiteering on the part of the Government clique—Frivolity and cynicism—The "Djemiet"—The delegates of the German Zentrulinkaufagesellschaft (Central Purchases Commission)—A hard battle between German and Turkish intrigue—Reform of the coinage—Paper money and its depreciation—The hoarding of bullion—The Russian rouble the best investment
107
CHAPTER VI
German propaganda and ethics—The unsuccessful "Holy War" and the German Government—"The Holy War" a crime against civilisation, a chimera, a farce—Underhand dealings—The German Embassy the dupe of adventurers—The morality of German Press representatives— A trusty servant of the German Embassy—Fine official distinctions of morality—The German conception of the rights of individuals
126

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CHAPTER VII
 
 
PAGE
Young Turkish nationalism—-One-sided abolition of capitulations—Anti-foreign efforts at emancipation—Abolition of foreign languages—German simplicity—The Turkification of commercial life—Unmistakable intellectual improvement as a result of the war—Trade policy and customs tariff—National production—The founding of new businesses in Turkey—Germany supplanted—German starvation—-Capitulations or full European control?—The colonisation and forcible Turkification of Anatolia—"The properties of people who have been despatched elsewhere" —The "Mohadjirs"-—Greek persecutions just before the Great War—The "discovery" of Anatolia, the nucleus of the Ottoman Empire—Turkey finds herself at last—-Anatolian dirt and decay—The "Greater Turkey" and the purely Turkish Turkey—Cleavage or concentration?
151
CHAPTER VIII
 
Religion and race—The Islam policy of Abdul-Hamid and of the Young Turks—Turanism and Pan-Islamism as political principles—Turanism and the Quadruple Alliance— Greed and race-fanaticism—Religions traditions and modern reforms—Reform in the law—A modem Sheikh-ul-Islam—Reform and nationalisation—The Armenian and Greek Patriarchates—The failure of Pan-Islamism— The alienation of the Arans—Djemal Pasha's "hangman's policy" in Syria—Djemal as a "Pro-French"—Djemal and Enver— Djemal and Germany—His true character— The attempts against the Suez Canal—Djemal's murderous work nears completion-—The great Arabian and Syrian Separatist movement—The defection of the Emir of Mecca and the great Arabian catastrophe
176

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CHAPTER IX
 
 
PAGE
Anti-war and pro-Entente feelings among the Turks—Turkish pessimism about the war—How would Abdul-Hamid have acted?—A war of prevention against Russia—Russia and a neutral Turkey—The agreement about the Dardanelles —A peaceful solution scorned—Alleged criminal intentions on the part of the Entente; the example of Greece and Salonika—To be or not to be?—German influence— Turkey stakes on the wrong card—The results
209
CHAPTER X
 
The outlook for the future—The consequences of trusting Germany—The Entente's death sentence on Turkey— The social necessity for this deliverance—Anatolia, the new Turkey after the war; forecasts about the Turkish race—The Turkish element in the lost territory—Russia and Constantinople; international guarantees—Germany, at peace, benefits too—Farewell to the German "World Politicians"—German interests in a victorious and in a defeated Turkey—The German-Turkish treaty—A paradise on earth—The Russian commercial impulse—The new Armenia Western Anatolia, the old Greek centre of civilisation—Great Arabia and Syria—The reconciliation of Germany
258
Appendix
283
Acknowledgements:

Source: Stuermer, Harry. Two War Years in Constantinople. USA: George H. Doran Company, 1917.
Provided by: Aram Arkun, Krikor and Clara Zohrab Information Center
Scanned by: Karen Vrtanesyan
OCR: Lina Kamalyan

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