TURKEY AND THE ARMENIAN ATROCITIES
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CHAPTER I. THE TURKISH EMPIRE.
Geographical Extent — Topography — Physical Characteristics — Products — Traveling and Transportation — Building
CHAPTER II. POPULATION AND LANGUAGES.
Accurate Statements as to Population Impossible — No Census — Best Available Estimates — Distribution — Most of the Races Described in Other Chapters — Jews and Foreigners — General Characteristics — The Languages — How Distributed — Peculiarities of the Turkish — Number Spoken in the Seaboard Cities
CHAPTER III. RELIGIONS.
Islam and Christianity — A Few Pagan Communities — Origin of Mohammedanism — The Koran — The Traditions — Extent of Islam — Present Condition — Effect upon the Turks — Contact with Civilization — Sects — Oriental Christianity — Characteristics
CHAPTER IV. THE TURKS.
Their Origin — Early History — General Characteristics — Good Qualities — Kindness — Hospitality — Temperance — Honesty — Intellectual Ability — Obedience to Rulers — Bravery — Bad Characteristics — Indifference to Suffering — Brutality — Degradation of Women — Sensuality — Official Unreliability — Fatalism — Insolence — Indolence — General Summary
CHAPTER V. THE KURDS.
Legend of the Serpents — Connected with the Medes — Tribal Organization — Nomad Life — Saladin and the Crusaders — After the Russo-Turkish War — The Hamidieh Cavalry — Brutal Treatment of Christians — Arabs — Circassians and Other Moslem Subjects — The Nusairiyeh — Yezidis and Druzes
CHAPTER VI. THE ARMENIANS.
Their Origin — Early History — First Nation to Accept Christianity — Dispersion Under Oppression — Change from Agricultural to Commercial People — General Characteristics;' Loyalty to Nation and Religion — Industry — Morality — Intellectual Ability — Shrewdness — Jealousy of One Another — Influence of Missions and European Ideas — Growth of National Ambition — Armenians in Russia — Autonomy — Armenians in Other Countries — Patriarch Mattheos — Outlook for the Future
CHAPTER VII. THE GREEKS.
Fidelity of the Oriental Churches — The Apostle Andrew — Concessions by Mohammed II — Gennadios II — Suffering and Misery — Greek Revolution — Growth of National Spirit — Hellenes or Romaioi — Bulgarians in their Relation to the Greek Church.
CHAPTER VIII. OTHER ORIENTAL CHURCHES.
The Syrian Church Divided into Syrians, Chaldeans, Nestorians, Jacobites, and some Roman Catholic Bodies — The Jacobites — Patriarch of Antioch — Condition of Villagers — Jebel Tur Region — Nestorians — Patriarch of Babylon — Badir Khan Bey — Chaldeans — The Copts of Egypt — Maronites and Druzes
CHAPTER IX. RISE AND DECLINE OF OTTOMAN POWER.
Capture of Constantinople — Victories of Mohammed II — The Sultans Assume the Caliphate — Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent — Attack upon Venice — Constant Strife over the Danubian Principalities — Internal Disorganization — Weak Sultans and Powerful Viziers — Alliances with Foreign Powers — Repeated Disasters — Weak Rule in Asia — Revolt in Egypt and Syria — Condition at Commencement of Present Century
CHAPTER X. TURKEY AND EUROPE.
First Intercourse — Alliance between Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent — Intrigues between France and Austria — The First Treaty — Nature of Capitulations — Peculian Favors Granted to the French — Their Recognition as the Protectors of Christians — Entrance of Other Powers — Louis XIV and His Ambassador — Influence of De Breves — Peace of Carlowitz — Turkey No Longer Dreaded in Europe
CHAPTER XI. RUSSIA AND TURKEY.
Aggression of Peter the Great — Diminution and Renewal of French Influence — The Contest over the Holy Places — Victory of Russian Influence in Favor of the Greek Church — Russia's Religious Propaganda Among the Greeks — Rise of Phil-Hellenism — Dismemberment Talked of — Effect of the French Revolution — The Russian Fleet in the Dardanelles — The English Fleet at Constantinople — Peace of Tilsit — Plan for Partition — Accession of Mahmud II
CHAPTER XII. MAHMUD II.
A Disintegrating Empire — An Energetic Sultan — Napoleon and Alexander — Lord Stratford de Redcliffe — Greek War for Independence — Russia's Perfidy — Destruction of the Janissaries — Reforms Attempted — Mehemet Ali of Egypt — Accession of Abd-ul-Medjid
CHAPTER XIII. REFORM AND PROGRESS.
Reign of Abd-ul-Medjid — Influence of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe — English Policy in Turkey — Hatti Sherif of Gulhane — A Remarkable Document — Equal Rights for All Subjects of the Sultan — Land Tax and Judicial Reform — General Situation of the Country — Application of the Reforms
CHAPTER XIV. TREATIES OF PARIS AND
Influence of Lord Stratford — The Holy Places — Crimean War — Treaty of Paris — Abd-ul-Aziz — Extravagance — Influx of Europeans — Provincial Government — Accession of Abd-ul-Hamid II — Russo-Turkish War — Treaty of San Stephano — Treaty of Berlin — Cyprus Convention
CHAPTER XV. CONDITION OF THE CHRISTIANS.
The Christians under Early Moslem Rule — Mohammed II — General Oppression — Protection by French Government — Russian Intrigue — Power of the Greek Church — Reforms under Mahmud II and Abd-ul-Medjid — The Hatti Humayoun — General Improvement Throughout the Empire
CHAPTER XVI. THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT.
True Moslem State Theocratic — Dual Form of the Present Government — The Sublime Porte — Army and Navy — Internal Administration — Financial Management — General Corruption — Administration of Justice — Treatment of Christians — The Ulema — The Palace Party — The Sultan
CHAPTER XVII. PROTESTANT MISSIONS IN
Early History — Opposition of Ecclesiastics in the Oriental Churches — Attitude of the Turkish Government — Work Among Moslems — Development of Education — Societies at Work — The American Board — Presbyterian Boards — American and British Bible Societies — English Societies — General Statistics — Relations to the Turkish Government — Character of the Missionaries
CHAPTER XVIII. THE ARMENIAN QUESTION.
A Progressive Grand Vizier — Victory of the Reactionary Party — Egypt and the Mahdi — Rise of the Armenian Question — Russian Intrigue — Articles of the Berlin Treaty — Autonomy Desired — The Huntchagist Committee — Placards in Asia Minor Burning of American Building at Marsovan — Numerous Arrests — Armenians Exiled — Coercive Measures of the Government — American Citizens Threats — Huntchagists Disowned by the Nation — Young Turkey Party — Absolute Failure of the Huntchagist Movement
CHAPTER XIX. GENERAL SITUATION IN 1894.
Terrible Oppression — Exaggerated Reports — Truth Stranger Than Fiction — Religious Liberty Infringed Upon — Oppressive School Laws — Rigorous Censorship — General Effort of the Government to Suppress Christian Development
CHAPTER XX. THE SASSUN MASSACRE.
A Deliberate Plan of The Turkish Government — Kurdish Raids — Armenians Defend Themselves — Kurds Reinforced by Regular Troops — Terrible Scenes of Slaughter — Stories of Survivors
CHAPTER XXI. POLITICS AND MASSACRE AT CONSTANTINOPLE.
Investigation at Sassun — Mr. Gladstone on the Situation — Disturbances in Constantinople — Joint Notes by the Embassies — Plan of Reforms — New English Government — Massacre in Constantinople — Decisive Action of the Embassies — Signing of the Reforms — Subsequent Acts of Defiance — Breach Between England and Russia — Collapse of English Influence
CHAPTER XXII. MASSACRES AT
TREBIZOND AND ERZRUM.
Importance and General Prosperity of Both Cities — Threats by the Turks — Terror Among the Armenians — Suddenness of the Attacks — Murder and Pillage by Regular Soldiers, Under the Eye of Foreign Consuls — Ferocity of the Turks — Testimony of Eye-Witnesses — Terrible Scenes at the Burial of the Victims
CHAPTER XXIII. MASSACRES IN HARPUT DISTRICT.
American Residences — First Indications — Specious Promises — Riot, Murder and Pillage — A Dangerous Journey — Attempts at Defense — List of Villages and Details of Massacres — Statement of a Turkish Official — Armenians not Responsible — Turkish Dread of Reform — Tabular Statement
CHAPTER XXIV. AINTAB, MARASH AND URFA.
The Situation in Northern Syria — No Revolutionary Movement — Massacre at Aintab — Kurdish Women — A Turkish Captain Helps the Pillage — A Colonel Checks it — Caring for the Wounded — Two Attacks at Marash — Destruction of American Houses — Brave Men in Zeitun — Story of Massacres at Urfa
CHAPTER XXV. CHARACTER OF THE MASSACRES.
Massacres at Sivas, Cesarea, Birejik, Bitlis, and the Region of Mardin — Protection by the Turkish Government for the Jacobites — General Survey — Place and Time of the Massacres — Victims Exclusively Armenians — Effort to Destroy the Strength of the Nation — Motive — Responsibility of the Turkish Government and of the Sultan
CHAPTER XXVI. RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION.
Motive of the Massacres — Primarily Political, then Religious — The Religious Element Overpowering the Political — Dread of Christian Domination — False Statements by the Turkish Government — Instances of Persecution and Enforced Conversion to Islam — A Tremendous Moral Disaster — Efforts of the Government to Suppress Reports
CHAPTER XXVII. RELIEF WORK.
The General Situation — Absolute Destitution — Appeals to America and England — Work in the Sassun Region — Van and Dr. Kimball — Appeals Following the Greater Massacres — Clara Barton and the Red Cross — Opposition of the Turks — Letter from Van — After the Massacre in Harput — Suffering in the Villages — Appeal for Help
CHAPTER XXVIII. PARTITION OF TURKEY.
Factors in the Problem — Turkey and Europe — Topography of the Country — Distribution of Population — Countries Interested — Russia, England, France, Austria, Italy Germany, Greece, Bulgaria — Desire for Territorial Aggrandizement — Mutual Jealousies — Possible Solution — Turkish Factor Often Overlooked — Great Difficulties to be Met
CHAPTER XXIX. AMERICA AND TURKEY.
Early Treaties — Some Prominent Ambassadors — American Missionaries — Obedience to the Laws — Treaty Rights — Questions of Importance — Indemnity at Harput and Marash — More Consuls Needed — Naturalized Americans — Right of Domicile Threatened — Positive Action Needed — Duty of America
CHAPTER XXX. GENERAL SURVEY.
Statistics of Massacre and Pillage — Where Does the Responsibility Rest? — The Turks; Fear, Ferocity, Outrage — The Armenians; Ambition, Lack of Preparation, Unwisdom of Huntchagists — The European Powers; Jealousy, Ambition, Cowardice — The Sultan; Alliance with Reactionary Party, Difficult Position, Individual Care of Minutiae — Latest Development of Most Terrible Persecution.
Bliss, Rev. Edwin Munsell . Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities.
Edgewood Publishing Company , 1896
J. Rendel Harris
& B. Helen Harris, Letters
from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia