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Edwin Munsell Bliss

TURKEY AND THE ARMENIAN ATROCITIES


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[page 427]

CHAPTER XXIII.

MASSACRES IN HARPUT DISTRICT.

American Residences — First Indications — Specious Promises — Riot, Murder and Pillage — A Dangerous Journey — Attempts at Defense — List of Villages and Details of Massacres-Statement of a Turkish Official — Armenians not Responsible — Turkish Dread of Reform — Tabular Statement.

The city of Harput stands on a hill in a plain to the east of the Euphrates. It is a city of 30,000 inhabitants, of whom less than one-half are Armenians, the others being Turks. The plain stretches out in rolling country, except to the north, where lies a hilly and even mountainous region. The Harput plain has long been noted as one of the most fertile in Asia Minor or Eastern Turkey. The inhabitants are quiet, peaceful folk, both Armenians and Turks. The different villages are prosperous, and there has been a good degree of intelligence and of self-restraint among this people. The wave of revolutionary feeling that extended over the region of Marsovan and Yuzgat scarcely seemed to touch Harput, and up to the close of 1895 there were no indications of any trouble. The city is the centre of a large mission work and the seat of the Euphrates College, together with a theological seminary and a flourishing girls’ school. The students are gathered from the whole of Eastern Turkey, and represent the better element of the Armenian nation throughout

[page 428] ATTACK BY THE KURDS.

that section of the empire. From the very beginning of the Armenian question, strong influence was exerted in favor of entirely peaceful action in the effort to secure reform, and all overt opposition to the government was strongly discountenanced. Turkish officials were always welcomed at the exercises in the college and repeatedly expressed their pleasure at its conduct. The missionaries had always been on excellent terms with the officials, especially with the governors of the province, who were located at the town of Mezereh, about four miles below the city on the plains. So far as was apparent, not a sign of revolutionary influence was manifest anywhere in the region, and friends of the missionaries located there felt that they at least were in no danger from the disturbances. The first indication of danger was the appearance on the plain of bands of Kurds from the regions north and east. Villages were attacked, looted and burned, while the villagers were killed or scattered. For a time the marauders seemed to hold aloof from the city itself, but as they kept on their course of pillage their appetite for plunder was whetted, and they looked with avaricious eyes at the city on the hill. They were joined, too, by the Turkish rabble, both in the city and villages, and it became evident that there was danger, even for the Americans. Dr. H. N. Barnum went to the city officials and was assured that nothing should happen to them; that no Kurds would be allowed to enter the city. What followed is best told in the words of an eye-witness.

“We were surrounded for a week or ten days by a cordon of burning villages on the plain. Gradually the cordon of fire and fiendish savages drew nearer the city. The attack in the city was planned for Sunday, November 10th, and some of the city rabble began to make demonstrations; but

[page 429] ATTACK ON HUSENIK.

the soldiers drove them back. The invading Kurds, Redifs (Turkish soldiers in disguise as Kurds), were not ready for the onset. On Monday, November 11th, the attack began on Husenik (a village of the plains only a short distance from the city), where 200 were killed and as many more wounded, then up the gorge to Sinamood (a rocky hill on which stands the ruins of an old fortress) and the east part of the city. Then a body of men appeared in the Turkish cemetery below the city. They came near a body of soldiers posted on the hill with a cannon. Big Turks came down to them from the city; a conference seemed to be held. Apparently the invaders were forbidden to touch the markets (from which, of course, they knew that both Christians and Turks had removed their goods to their houses). Then the soldiers withdrew and were posted on the road higher up, apparently to better defend the empty markets. Then the invaders, with a great cry of “Ash! ash!” began to fire their guns. The soldiers also began to fire. It was soon apparent that this was only a little sham fight; but it was too thin to cover the nefarious design of the men who planned this thing. Then began the attack on the houses in this quarter. (The American houses are in the western part of the city, quite a distance from the markets.) The soldiers protected the raiders, and not a finger was lifted by the military officers on the ground to protect the people or us from the plundering, murderous mob. There were hundreds of plunderers. Scarcely a house in this quarter escaped, and a large number were set on fire. A crowd of refugees were in our court and house and girls’ school.

“ Soon our outside gate was attacked, and the crowd of fugitives fled for their lives. One company pressing through

[page 430] MURDER AND ARSON.

a narrow passage were fired upon; the bullets fell like hail around them; four were wounded. A cannon-ball went through the same passage-way. This company fled to the hill and were taken into the city (twenty-seven school-girls in the crowd; they suffered untold misery in a khan that night; delivered next day, and brought away under an escort of soldiers). The rest of the refugees took refuge in the yard of the girls’ school, surrounded by a high wall. At the last moment I ran out to see if our heavy front gate was standing. I saw a hole a foot wide made, and instantly the loud report of a rifle warned me to retreat. We had been in the yard but a few moments when the marauders were at the door of the yard inside the school buildings. We made another start and hurried out from the gate, and this time for the College (boys’) building as our last refuge. I was on the outside of the fleeing crowd, our invalids, Mr. W. and Mrs. A., borne in strong arms. Suddenly a savage-looking Turk appeared at the corner of the building outside. I instinctively raised my hand to prevent his coming toward the fleeing crowd. Instantly he drew and flourished a revolver and deliberately pointed at me. I thought for an instant it was only to frighten us and make us hasten our flight, but two shots from his pistol convinced me that his purpose was to murder. Some thirty or more had been shot down in the houses just below us. Again, before we were all through the gate, he aimed at Mr. Gates and Miss Wheeler and fired a third time; but no one was hit. We breathed more freely as we pressed into the three-story stone building with the more than four hundred fugitives. Soon the smoke began to rise from the front of my house and Mr. Brown’s; some say the house was set on fire by bombshells. Soon the whole of the houses

[page 431 - illustration]

British Flotilla

[caption] BRITISH FLOTILLA. The gigantic gunboats of the British Mediterranean fleet nearing Constantinople after the most terrible massacres

[page 432 - illustration]

Massacres of Armenians

[caption] MASSACRES OF ARMENIANS. This is a sketch by an eye-witness of the terrible massacre of Armenians by Softas (fanatical Moslem Students) near St. Sofia.

[page 433] TREACHERY OF THE COMMANDER.

connected with the Girls’ College were on fire, and the large college building was no doubt set on fire; also fifty to seventy houses were burning below ours. Then the chapel close to us was set on fire, and the intense heat would have set fire to the large high-school building between the college and chapel; but with our new fire engine and a plentiful supply of water, Mr. Gates was able to save it from taking fire. Here in the college building, with 450 persons, we spent the night, with little bedding and only dry crusts of bread to eat.

“The plan was evidently to destroy all the buildings, and thus render our stay here impossible. One of the houses was fired in three places, but the fire went out. A bombshell was fired into Mr. Barnum’s study, and burst in the room from which they had fled only a little before. Mr. Gates’ house would have been burned — oil was poured in two places — but happily was left unburned. Three nights we remained in the college building, then went into a room in the Gates’ house; the Barnums also went to theirs.

“ The next morning after the attack, the Turkish military commander advised and urged leaving the college building, saying: ‘I can’t protect you here.’ Mr. Barnum replied: ‘ The time has come for plain talk. I saw you standing on the hill there yesterday when our houses were plundered and burned, and you did nothing to prevent it. If you wish to protect us, you can do it better here than anywhere else.’ The same officer had said two days before that he would be cut in pieces before he would allow a Kurd to enter the city. He now brazenly replied: ‘ What could I do against 15,000 Kurds?’ They wanted to get the people scattered in the city, and us out of the buildings, and then they would have been burned. But I must not write more, although there

[page 434] MURDER OF PASTORS AND PREACHERS.

is much to tell. We write to Constantinople, but can’t be sure of our letters getting through. We have telegraphed a good many times, but telegrams can’t tell all. The pressure on the villages to become Moslem is terrible; large numbers have been instantly shot down or butchered who would not instantly abjure their Christian faith. We have already heard of the murder of seven of our pastors and six preachers. But I have not time to enter on these horrible details. If I can get letters sent on, perhaps I will send again; 45 killed in the west quarter, 100 in the whole city. Husenik, 200 killed, 200 wounded. Official reports will represent Turks killed. There has not been a single one killed or wounded.”

Northwest of Harput is the city of Arabkir, one of the most prosperous in the whole region. The Armenians are enterprising and thrifty, and for the most part have been on good terms with the Mohammedans. The American. Missionaries have had considerable influence there and at the time of the massacres two of the ladies were in the city. The time had come for them to return to Harput, but every possible difficulty was put in their way. There was intense excitement on every side and the Armenians were in terror. At last, by giving a heavy present the ladies secured a muleteer and a guard and started on their journey home. One of them has written of the journey as follows:

“Our journey was through a country infested with robber bands. Twice they stopped our zaptieh and demanded permission to rob us. We had the hardest time to get away from Arabkir, for the governor declared that he had no zaptieh, and we finally had to go to him in person to insist upon his furnishing one. Then we did not find a muleteer for

[page 435] DANGERS OF OUR JOURNEY.

nearly a week; he was a Kurd, and his animals were so lazy and slow! We traveled as if all was as safe and pleasant as possible. The first band of robbers who insisted upon the satisfaction of ‘ cutting us to pieces’ numbered seven fierce Kurds. I sat up straight on my horse and passed them quickly without looking, as if nothing was going on at all, and after me came the rest of our caravan, in the same spirit. The second band numbered 20, all fully armed. Again we pushed past and left our zeptieh to parley. The latter band had one man who took a fancy to my horse, and he proposed to shoot me and take Nejib for himself! There were many other robbers to be seen. We stayed the following night in a lonely khan, where we were in great danger.

“ This khan was on the other bank of the Euphrates, which was crossed early the next morning. Our zaptieh was to be changed at the town of Maden, just there. Again the governor would give us none. I was obliged to go to him myself, whereupon he gave orders that the one who brought us to Maden should take us on. What a fierce and cruel-looking man that governor was! But he had a little pity in his heart, for, when he saw our servant loading up in the market, he said: ‘ Make haste, Yavroom (a term of endearment used for animals), go quickly.’ He must have known what was coming. Our zaptieh took us on for a big price. I would have given him anything that he had asked. He was, to us, kind and good. How more than glad we were to get out of Maden. All were in fear, and the very next day the blow fell. It was a very worldly place, and all were busy, trying alone to hide their worldly goods. Oh, the pale faces and long-drawn sighs!”

At Arabkir and at Malatia, another large and prosperous

[page 436] MASSACRE AT ARABKIR AND MALATIA.

city farther south, the Armenians undertook to defend themselves. They, however, succeeded merely in stirring the greater anger of the Turks, with the result that they suffered terribly, while comparatively few Turks were killed. Estimates made soon after the massacre put the number of Armenians killed in Malatia at 5,000 and at Arabkir at 2,000, while in all probably not over 500 Turks suffered. In Malatia, all the Armenians, Gregorians, Roman Catholics and Protestants gathered in two churches and fought for their lives until compelled to surrender. One churchful first gave up their arms on condition of being protected, but after that they were surrounded and many of them were killed. Space does not permit complete statements, but the following table and notes, prepared in regard to the Harput region, will give an idea of the terrible work. The list embraces only a single month, commencing with the latter part of October, 1895. The items have been gathered with great care, and may be relied upon as within the truth rather than as exaggerated. The number of houses is given rather than the population, because that method is far more reliable. The number of people to a house varies from 5 to 30. Probably 8 to 10 would be a reasonably fair average.

Names Houses Burned Killed Wounded
1. Adish 310 310 244 men . .
      13 women  
2. Aivose . . . . 70 . .
3. Aghansi 47 1 12 10
4. Arabkir 3,000 Armenians 2,750 2,000 . .
  5,000 Turks      
  350 shops 325    
5. Bizmishen 270 190 23 5
    Partly 40    
6. Chemishgesek . . . . . . . .
7. Momsa . . . . 10 . .

[page 437] RECORD OF DISTINCTION.

Names Houses Burned Killed Wounded
8. Kutturbul 100 100 . . . .
9. Chunkush 1,000 Ar. 103 680 . .
  480 T.      
10. Chermuk 400 Ar. most. . . . .
  700 T.      
11. Diarbekir . . . . 2,000 . .
12. Egin 1,000 Ar. . . . . . .
  1,000 T.      
13. Gamirgab 90 32 7 . .
14. Garmuri . . . . . . . .
15. Hokh 125 Ar. 30 62 10
  150 T.      
16. Huelu 300 Ar. 263 30 . .
  15 T.      
17. Habusi 180 90 75 50
18. Hulakegh 150 11 16 . .
19. Havah 280 260 110 . .
20. Husenik 650 Ar. 9 260 200
  120 T.      
21. Ichmeh 200 Ar.   60  
  60 T.      
22. Konk 300 . . . . . .
23. Malatia 1,500 Ar. . . 5,000 . .
24. Ozunonah 100 Ar. . . 65 . .
25. Peri 400 Ar. . . 8 12

and 63 villages.

90 T.      
89. Palu 400 Ar. . . 1,580 . .
90. Kapu Achmaz 90 Ar. 75 . . . .
91. Khoshmat 160 Ar. 80 . . . .
92. Nurkhi 100 Ar. 90 . . . .
93. Shenaz and 40 villages 80 Ar. 45 . . . .
134. Severek 350 Ar. . . 750 . .
135. Saru Kamish 80 Ar. . . 6 . .
136. Sheikhaji . . . . . . . .
137. Tadem 300 Ar. 250 270 100
  4 T.      
138. Upper Mezreh 20 11 . . . .
  --------- --------- --------- ---------
Total 19,851 5,064 12,708 387

[page 438] STATEMENT OF ATROCITIES.

REMARKS.

1. Adish is a mountain village, and many had gone away to earn a living. Many females carried off by Turks and Kurds.

2. Aivose. — This place “ wiped out.” Women and girls carried off. Priest was forced to sound the “ call to prayer,” then shot. He blessed the man who shot him and said, “ Shoot me again.”

4. Arabkir. — Began Tuesday, November 6th, continued till Saturday. After that the Protestant pastor and many leading men were imprisoned. Pastor and others killed in prison. Plunder complete. Even the richest are destitute.

5. Bizmishen. — Eight miles from Harput. All who remained in the village were killed by Kurds. Most of them were old or sick and could not flee. The rest fled to Mezreh (the seat of the governor of the province) where they were robbed by soldiers under pretense of search for arms.

6. Chemishgesek. — Up to within a few days the city had escaped, but the villages being near the region occupied by the Dersim Kurds had been ravaged and in part burned.

8. Kutturbul. — Karabash, Kahe, Cherokeeya were burned with much loss of life. Only four men escaped from Kutturbul. Two Protestants pastors, men, women and children killed.

9. Chunkush. — November 4th, Kurds plundered the market and withdrew, but returned at night and burned 83 houses. Christians taken to mosque and forced to accept Islam. Gave up weapons. November 8th, Kaimakam (local governor) came. November nth, soldiers. November 14th, Kurds returned; soldiers fired on Christians, and Kurds then raided the town, all armed with Martini rifles. Protestant church, school and parsonage burned.

10. Chermuk. — Few males escaped.

[page 439] OUTRAGES CONTINUED.

11. Diarbekir. — November 1st-3d. Began by Moslems issuing from mosque and burning the market. Christians defended themselves. Do not know how many Turks were slain.

12. Egin. — Paid £. T. 1,500 ($6,600) to Mahmud Agha, a Kurdish chief, to secure immunity.

13. Gamirgab. — A suburb of Egin.

14. Garmuri. — Chiefs took Christians to their houses while Kurds plundered. Then they told them, “Unless you accept Islam we cannot protect you.” At the edge of the sword they accepted Islam and were circumcised. Protestant chapel and parsonage burned. Armenian church now a
mosque.

15. Hokh. — Armenian church, Protestant chapel and parsonage burned. Those killed had kneeled to receive circumcision. Fifty-five women and children taken to harems and Turkish villages. Women and girls outraged.

16. Huelu. — All but thirty-seven poor houses burned. Seventy-five Protestant houses and their fine new church burned. Two priests killed. The last houses burned were kindled with kerosene sent by the government. Survivors accepted Islam or are fugitives.

17. Habusi. — Dead unburied. Church, chapel and parsonage burned.

18. Hulakegh. — Plundered by Turks. Preacher tortured and killed in city. His wife killed.

19. Havah. — Being considered a centre of nationalism, Turks said they would make this village “a field.” Attacked by Kurds October 29th. Villagers held them off for two days and sent to government for help, which was refused. Then villagers fled, Kurds plundered the village. Killed 10

[page 440] ATROCITIES CONTINUED.

or 15. Thursday, October 31st, soldiers came. Fugitives heard the bugle and returned, expecting protection. Soldiers killed 50 of them; the rest fled to Ibraham Bey, at Socrat. After two or three days he sent them to barracks at Palu. There the women were separated, and sent to city; men sent back to Socrat. Ibraham Bey sent Kurds to meet them, who fired, killing 50 more. Survivors returned to barracks. Since then they have lived here and there as they could, pulling up the sprouting grain to get the seed, eating grass, etc. Government gave a little grain, Kurds took it.

20. Husenik. — Many of the dead were shot by soldiers. List of killed still increasing. Priests killed with great indignity.

21. Ichmeh. — Survivors are considered Moslems. Males are assembled in church, led out, and made to choose Islam or death. Protestant pastor killed. Church a mosque, chapel a sheepfold.

22. Konk. — “ Worse than Habusi.” No details.

23. Malatia. — November 4th-7th. Began by sudden raid of Turks and Kurds upon the market. Kurds armed with Martini rifles. Four hundred killed in the market, 30 or 40 at government headquarters. Armenians defended themselves. Five thousand Armenians, 500 Turks and Kurds
killed. Small rations given for a few days and then ceased.

24. Ozunonah. — Agha took people to his house for “ protection,” while Kurds plundered the village; then he sent them back, gathered leading men to take them to Palu for circumcision. Outside the village 10 were shot. Under the lead of a Christian woman, 55 men, women and children threw
themselves into the river.

25. Peri. — Seventy villages — 20,000 souls in that region

[page 441] ATROCITIES CONTINUED.

(Christians). Seven villages spared, rest plundered. In Peri Kurds attacked November 6th. Soldiers guided them to Christian houses. Plunder largely by Turks of the town. Kurds, dissatisfied with their share of the plunder, returned November 9th to plunder Turks, but two Kurds were shot and they withdrew. Agha had 20 to 30 Kurds in his house and secured much plunder. Four hundred and fifty Christians were made Moslems. A colonel came a few days later with soldiers. He reproached the Turks for the small number slain, and said: “You should have killed at least 100.”

89. Palu. — November 5th. The market and 50 or 60 houses were plundered by soldiers and Kurds. Afterward a government telal (broker) ordered people to open shops on penalty of three medjidies (silver dollars) fine. Said everything had passed and no more danger. Kurds came again, but were driven off to the villages, which they plundered. A sheik and his son preached a crusade against Christians. An attempt was made to involve Armenians, but failed. Sheik’s son said he thirsted for the blood of Armenians, and they were foolish to wait for them to start a disturbance. He is said to have killed 43 himself. November 11th Kurds suddenly appeared and began to kill. Only two Armenians resisted. The dead are estimated from 1,200 to 2,000. Chapel ruined, parsonage and school turned into barracks. Survivors dying of hunger. No relief allowed. Forty-four villages around Palu all plundered badly; seven more or less burned. From Khoshmat 20 or 30 women came to the barracks stark naked. Many outraged.

134. Severek. — Attack began by rush of Turks and Kurds upon the market; lasted three days. Of 80 Chunkush families in city, only seven heads of families remain.

[page 442] AN OFFICIAL’S STATEMENT.

136. Sheikhaji. — November 5th and 6th. Saved by Agha on payment of twenty liras. All became Moslems. Two priests killed, one with great indignity. Hadji Beyo and his son, Mustapha, were foremost in destroying the village. Now Agha gives a woman to each soldier and zaptieh on
guard every night. He has given two married women to his son and two to two renegade Armenians.

138. Upper Mezreh. — Much plunder from the city taken to Ahmed Agha’s house. His son is a zaptieh and his stepson a collector.

These are only the places in regard to which figures were available at the time. No one counted the wounded in most places. The number of deaths increased daily. From the villages which have been counted around Peri and Palu there were no particulars. The sum total must be dreadful in the extreme. No attempt has been made to keep count of the outrages upon women. They came from every quarter and hardly attracted notice.

If any one is inclined to doubt the reality of these chapters of horrors, they may be convinced by a table of statistics given below and prepared by an intelligent Turkish official, whose heart was greatly moved by the recent outrages in the region of Harput. He devoted much time to it, although secretly, for obvious reasons; and as he had had unusual facilities for securing information, this table is the most complete that has been made. As it is impossible to secure exact information in such cases, and as there is always a tendency to exaggerate, some of the items are probably an overstatement. Along with this was a document of which the fallowing is a translation. Coming as it does from a Mohammedan, who has a title and who is in the public service, it is

[page 443] FEARFUL ATROCITIES.

a document of no small interest and importance, for it is a testimony independent of other testimony that has been given, but which in every essential confirms what has been previously related. This statement is as follows:

“A petition in behalf of the Armenians was given to the Powers in the hope of improving their condition. An Imperial Firman was issued for carrying out the Reforms suggested by the Powers. On this account the Turkish population was much excited by the thought that an Armenian Principality was to be established here; and they began to show great hostility to the poor Armenians, who had been obedient to them and with whom they had lived in peace for more than six hundred years. In addition to their anger was added the permission and help of the government, by which, before the Reforms were undertaken, the whole Turkish population was aroused with the evil intent of obliterating the Armenian name: and behold the Turks of the district, joining with the neighboring Kurdish tribes, by the thousand, armed with weapons which are allowed only to the army, and with the help and guidance of Turkish officials, in an open manner in the daytime attacked the Armenian shops, stores, monasteries, churches and schools, and committed the fearful atrocities which are set forth in the accompanying table. They killed bishops, priests, teachers and common people, with every kind of torture; and they showed special spite toward ecclesiastics by treating their bodies with extra indignity, and in many cases they did not allow their bodies to be buried. Some they burned and some they gave as food to dogs and wild beasts. They plundered churches and monasteries and they took all the property of the common people, their flocks and herds, their ornaments and their money, their house-furnishings,

[page 444] STATEMENTS NOT OVERDRAWN.

their food, and even the clothing of the men and women in their flight.

“ Then, after plundering them, they burned many houses, churches, monasteries, schools and markets, with the petroleum they had brought with them, and the large stone churches, which they could not burn, they ruined in other ways. Some churches were converted into mosques and devoted to Moslem worship; other churches suffered all sorts of defilement; and their sacred books were torn in pieces and cast on the dung-hills, and even the priestly garments, used in the celebration of the Mass, were put upon harlots. Besides this, priests, laymen, women and even small children, were made Moslems by force. They put white turbans on the men and circumcised them in a cruel manner. They cut the hair of the women in bangs — like that of Moslem women — and made them go through the Moslem prayers. Married women and girls were defiled against the sacred law, and some were married by force and are still detained in Turkish houses. Especially in Palu, Severek, Malatia, Arabkir, and Chunkush, many women and girls were taken to the soldiers’ barracks and dishonored there. Many to escape such dishonor, threw themselves into the Euphrates, and some committed suicide in other ways. It is very clear that the majority of those killed in Harput, Kesirik, Malatia and Arabkir were killed by the soldiers; and also that the churches and schools of the missionaries and Gregorians in the upper quarter of Harput city, together with the houses, were set on fire by cannon-balls. Merchants, bankers and others of the principal Armenians are obliged to beg their food. If immediate aid is not sent, multitudes of the sufferers will perish from hunger and cold during the severe winter, (See the table on next page.)

[page 445] TABLE OF OUTRAGES

Table of outrages (click to enlarge)

[page 446] NO OCCASION FOR ATTACKS.

The government makes little effort to provide for the security of the people and unless special protection is provided, the survivors will perish also.

“ It is impossible to state the amount of the pecuniary loss. The single city of Egin has given twelve hundred liras ($5,280) as a ransom. (It is said by others to have been fifteen hundred liras.)

“These events have occurred for the reasons which I have mentioned. I wish to show by this report, which I have written from love to humanity, that the Armenians gave no occasion for these attacks.”

Strong as these statements are, they are not overdrawn. There may be exaggerations in the figures by hundreds and thousands, but the facts it is impossible to exaggerate. Every place has its own tale of horror, and when individual cases are examined the record is too vast for the human imagination. Only God and the angels can take it in.

 


Table of Contents | The Cover, Frontispiece, Title Page, Copyright Notice, etc.
Introduction | Preface | Turkey in Asia (map) | Table of Contents (as in the book)
List of Illustrations | 1. The Turkish Empire | 2. Population and Languages | 3. Religions
4. The Turks | 5. The Kurds | 6. The Armenians | 7. The Greeks | 8. Other Oriental Churches
9. Rise and Decline of Ottoman Power | 10. Turkey and Europe | 11. Russia and Turkey
12. Mahmud II | 13. Reform and Progress | 14. Treaties of Paris and Berlin
15. Condition of the Christians | 16. The Turkish Government | 17. Protestant Missions in Turkey
18. The Armenian Question | 19. General Situation in 1894 | 20. The Sassun Massacre
21. Politics and Massacre at Constantinople | 22. Massacres at Trebizond and Erzrum
23. Massacres in Harput District | 24. Aintab, Marash and Urfa
25. Character of the Massacres
26. Religious Persecution | 27. Relief Work | 28. Partition of Turkey | 29. America and Turkey
30. General Survey | Alphabetical Index

Acknowledgements:

Source: Bliss, Rev. Edwin Munsell . Turkey and the Armenian Atrocities. Edgewood Publishing Company , 1896
Provided by: Aram Arkun, Krikor and Clara Zohrab Information Center
Scanned by: Karen Vrtanesyan
OCR: Irina Minasyan

See also:

J. Rendel Harris & B. Helen Harris, Letters from the Scenes of the Recent Massacres in Armenia
Helen Davenport Gibbons, The Red Rugs of Tarsus
Maj. General James G. Harbord Conditions in the Near East: Report of the American Military Mission to Armenia

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